The Mediation Act, 2023: A Paradigm Shift in Dispute Resolution in India By Rishabh Gandhi

New Delhi (India) July 11 : The Mediation Act, 2023, marks a significant step forward in India’s efforts to institutionalize and streamline mediation as a primary method for dispute resolution. This comprehensive legislation not only seeks to promote and facilitate mediation across various domains but also aims to enforce mediated settlement agreements, establish a robust framework for the registration and regulation of mediators, and encourage community and online mediation. As a trained mediator and expert in arbitration and mediation, I find this Act to be a pivotal development in India’s legal landscape. This article delves into the key features, implications, and potential impact of the Mediation Act, 2023, on the dispute resolution mechanism in India.

A Comprehensive Framework

The Mediation Act, 2023, is structured to cover a wide array of mediation scenarios, including commercial disputes, community mediation, and online mediation. The Act applies to mediations conducted within India, irrespective of whether the parties are domestic or international, and even includes provisions for mediation involving government bodies. This broad applicability ensures that the benefits of mediation are accessible to a wide range of disputes, fostering a culture of amicable settlement and reducing the burden on the judiciary.

Institutional Mediation and the Role of the Mediation Council of India

One of the standout features of the Act is the emphasis on institutional mediation. The Act encourages the establishment of mediation service providers and institutes, which are responsible for accrediting mediators, providing necessary infrastructure, and ensuring the professional conduct of mediation processes. The creation of the Mediation Council of India (MCI) is a significant step towards standardizing mediation practices. The MCI is tasked with developing guidelines, accrediting mediators, maintaining a register of mediated settlement agreements, and promoting mediation at both domestic and international levels.

The establishment of the MCI ensures a centralized body to oversee the quality and consistency of mediation services. This is crucial for building trust among parties opting for mediation and for maintaining the integrity of the process. The MCI’s role in providing continuous education and certification for mediators also addresses the need for professional development and adherence to ethical standards in mediation.

Enforceability of Mediated Settlement Agreements

A critical aspect of the Mediation Act, 2023, is the enforceability of mediated settlement agreements. Once a settlement is reached and authenticated by the mediator, it is considered final and binding on the parties involved. This provision elevates the status of mediation, aligning it with traditional judicial decrees and ensuring that parties can rely on the outcomes of mediation with confidence.

The Act also provides mechanisms for challenging a mediated settlement agreement on grounds such as fraud, corruption, or impersonation, ensuring that the process remains fair and transparent. This balance between enforceability and the ability to challenge unfair settlements enhances the credibility of mediation as a dispute resolution mechanism.

Pre-Litigation Mediation and Court-Annexed Mediation

The Act introduces the concept of pre-litigation mediation, where parties are encouraged to settle disputes before initiating formal legal proceedings. This approach can significantly reduce the caseload of courts and promote faster resolution of disputes. The provision for court-annexed mediation further integrates mediation into the judicial system, allowing courts to refer cases to mediation at any stage of the proceedings.

Pre-litigation mediation is particularly beneficial for commercial disputes, where time and confidentiality are often of the essence. By resolving disputes through mediation before they escalate to litigation, businesses can save on legal costs and preserve business relationships.

Online Mediation

In recognition of the evolving digital landscape, the Act includes provisions for online mediation. This is a forward-thinking move that acknowledges the role of technology in modern dispute resolution. Online mediation can make the process more accessible and cost-effective, particularly for parties in different geographical locations. The Act ensures that online mediation maintains the same standards of confidentiality and integrity as traditional mediation.

The inclusion of online mediation is particularly relevant in the post-pandemic world, where virtual interactions have become commonplace. This provision not only facilitates cross-border mediations but also caters to the needs of individuals and businesses who prefer the convenience of resolving disputes from their own locations.

Community Mediation

Community mediation is another innovative feature of the Act. It allows for the resolution of disputes that affect peace and harmony within a community through a panel of community mediators. This approach empowers local communities to resolve conflicts amicably and fosters a sense of collective responsibility and cooperation.

Community mediation can be particularly effective in resolving disputes that involve multiple parties and where maintaining long-term relationships is crucial. By involving respected members of the community as mediators, this approach leverages local knowledge and trust to achieve sustainable resolutions.

Confidentiality and Ethical Standards

Confidentiality is a cornerstone of the mediation process, and the Act includes stringent provisions to protect the confidentiality of mediation communications. Mediators, participants, and mediation service providers are prohibited from disclosing any information related to the mediation proceedings. This ensures that parties can engage in open and honest discussions without fear of their statements being used against them in future legal proceedings.

The Act also sets high ethical standards for mediators, requiring them to disclose any potential conflicts of interest and to conduct themselves with integrity and impartiality. These provisions are essential for maintaining the trust and credibility of the mediation process.

Challenges and the Way Forward

While the Mediation Act, 2023, is a significant step forward, its successful implementation will require concerted efforts from various stakeholders. Awareness campaigns and training programs will be crucial to educate the public, legal professionals, and potential mediators about the benefits and processes of mediation. Additionally, ensuring the availability of qualified mediators and adequate infrastructure for mediation will be essential for the Act to achieve its intended objectives.

The role of the judiciary in promoting and referring cases to mediation cannot be overstated. Judges and legal practitioners need to be sensitized to the advantages of mediation and encouraged to recommend it as a viable alternative to litigation. Furthermore, the development of a robust monitoring and evaluation framework by the MCI will be critical in assessing the effectiveness of mediation and making necessary adjustments to the regulatory framework.


The Mediation Act, 2023, represents a landmark in the evolution of dispute resolution in India. By promoting mediation as a preferred method for resolving disputes, the Act has the potential to transform the legal landscape, reduce the burden on courts, and foster a culture of amicable settlement. The establishment of the Mediation Council of India, the enforceability of mediated settlement agreements, and the provisions for pre-litigation and online mediation are key elements that will drive the success of this legislation. As a mediator and expert in arbitration, I am optimistic that the Mediation Act, 2023, will usher in a new era of dispute resolution in India, characterized by efficiency, fairness, and collaboration.

Rishabh Gandhi is an Arbitration Lawyer and a Former Judge. Know more about him on –

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